Jumat, 31 Desember 2010

Controlling Pest and Diseases of Potato Plant

Look the nutritional content, the potato is the main source of carbohydrates. Potato became the staple food in many western countries. To get more good production of potato also to know about management pest and diseases of this plant.

The basic for successful management of potato pest, diseases and nutritional disorder I integrated crop management. This implies prevention of insect infestation and infection by pathogens through the use of adequate cultural practices and the conservation of natural enemies. Adequate control practices include the selection of healthy planting material from well adapted varieties, rotation, good field sanitation and maintenance of soil fertility. Conservation of natural enemies involves avoidance of pesticide use, enhancement of natural enemy action through favorable cultivation practices and the introduction of natural enemies if necessary.

Many insect species attack potato and the importance of different species varies between agro ecological zones. Within a zone, the importance of species depends on the season; many insect pest are a problem mainly in dry periods

The pest and diseases of potatoes plant as follow:

A. Pest on Potatoes Plant 

1. Caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Symptoms: caterpillars attack the leaves by eating the epidermis and the leaf tissue until exhausted.

Mechanically by cutting the leaves that have been plastered with eggs; chemistry with Azordin, Diazinon 60 EC, 50 EC Sumithion.2. Aphids (Aphis Sp)
Symptoms: aphids suck fluids and infect the plant, can also transmit the virus to soybean plants.
Control: a way to cut and burn infected leaves. If so much plant have been infected you can spray with Roxion 40 EC, Dicarzol 25 SP insecticide.

3.  Gryllotalpa
Symptoms: attack the bulbs in the garden, roots, young shoots and young plants. As a result, plants become susceptible to bacterial infections.
Control: Sevin 85 S using the flour mixed with manure.

4. Root weevils (Phtorimae poerculella)
Symptoms: the leaves are dark red and looks like a tangle of yarn that is a gray caterpillar wrapping material. Tubers are attacked when cleaved, would look the pits because most bulbs have been eaten.
Control: chemically using Selecron 500 EC, 25 EC Ekalux, Orthene & 5 SP, Lammnate L.5. Thrips   (Thrips tabaci)
Symptoms: Potato leaves have patches of white, then changed to a silver gray and then dry. The attack starts from the ends of the young leaves.
Control: mechanically by cutting the leaves are affected; chemically using Basudin 60 EC, Mitac 200 EC, Diazenon, Bayrusil Dicarzol 25 EC or 25 SP.

B. Disease of Potato

1. Late blight (Phytopthora infestans fungus).
Symptoms: Small patches occur in green-gray and slightly damp, then these patches will grow and the color changed to brown to black with white edges of the sporangium. The next leaves will rot and die.
Control: Insecticide that can use to control this pest are Antracol 70 WP, Dithane M-45, Brestan 60, Polyram 80 WP, 80 WP Velimek insecticide..
2.Bacterial  Diseases by Pseudomonas solanacearum
Symptoms:  The top of potato young leaves some wilted plants and old leaves, leaf yellowing of the bottom.
Control: Prevent the diseases attacking by keeping the garden sanitation, plant crop rotation. Chemical eradication can use the bactericidal, Agrimycin atu Agrept 25 WP.
3. Root rot disease (Colleotrichum coccodes   )
Symptoms: The leaves turn yellow and curl, then withered and dry. At the plant in the ground there are patches of brown. Infection will cause root rot and young tubers.
Control: Prevent from diseases attacking by crop rotation, sanitation, gardens and the use of good seed.
4. Fusarium Disease  (Fusarium sp.  )
Symptoms: The infection causes tuber rot in tubers that causes plants to wilt. This disease also attacks potatoes in storage. Infection enters through the wounds caused by nematodes / mechanical factors.
Control: Please to avoid injury when weeding. Chemical control with Benlate.
5. Dry spot disease (Early Blight) or Alternaria solani

Fungi diseased are breed in dry areas.
Symptoms: The infected leaves stained irregularly scattered small, dark brown, and then extended to younger leaves. Tuber skin surface irregularly mottled dark, dry, wrinkled and tough.
Control: Prevent from this fungi attacking by crop rotation.
6. Disease due to virus
Viruses that attack are:
- Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) causes leaf curl;
- Potato Virus X (PVX) causes latent mosaic on the leaves;
- Potato Virus Y (PVY) causing mosaic or local necrosis;
- Potato Virus A (PVA) causes mosaic software, (5) Potato virus M (PVM) causes mosaic roll;
- Potato Virus S (PVS) causing mosaic limp.
Symptoms: in the attack, the plants grow stunted, straight , leaf yellowing and tissue death. The spread of viruses carried by farm equipment, aphids Aphis spiraecola, A. gossypii and Myzus persicae, and Coccinella Epilachna beetles and nematodes.

Control: no pesticides to control the virus, prevention and control is done by planting virus-free seedlings, cleaning equipment, prune and burn diseased plants, eradicate vectors and crop rotation.

Selasa, 07 Desember 2010

Pest and Diseases on Corn Plant

Corn plant consists of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds. Several types of pests and diseases that often damage maize plants and disrupt the growth of corn and affect productivity include:

Prior to the occurrence of pests and diseases in the corn crop, it can be implemented preventive measures by way of:
a. The use of resistant seed varieties
b. The use of agronomic techniques
c. The use of disinfectants to seeds to be planted
d. Maintenance and utilization of natural enemies

The final step to eradicate plant pests with the use of pesticide materials if the attack had reached the economic threshold or above the economic threshold, in this case must be carried out field research and data collection as well as possible.

1.Lundi pests

This pest attacking plants at the time of growth control by regulating the time of planting, or by using a systemic insecticide, which is sown into the ground, for example Mephosfolan or Carbofuran at a dose of 1.5 kg active ingredient / ha, another way of control is to plant more early.2. Flies Seeds (Antherigona exigua Stein)

This pest attacking the new seeds to grow, control is performed 2-3 days, or the use of insecticides folidol, agrocide, such as the recommended dose (eg 1.5 to 2 cc / liter of water)

3. Land caterpillar (Agrotis sp)

The pest are attack small plants, is controlled by manually by killing caterpillars, or sprinkled Carbopuran soil before planting. The following chemicals are recommended for spraying: carbaryl 0.2 per cent; endosulfan 0.04 per cent, dimethoate 0.03 per cent; quinalphos 0.05 per cent; formothion 0.05 per cent; methyl demeton 0.04 per cent, phosphamidon 0.02 per cent, methyl parathion 0.05 per cent and chlorpyrifos 0.05 per cent.4. Leaf caterpillar (Prodenia litura F)

This pest attacking shoots at 1-month-old plants, should be sprayed with one of the recommended insecticides.The pests being nocturnal in their habits, control operations have to be taken up either during early morning hours or late evening hours or preferably during nights. Spraying or dusting with a persistent insecticide like carbaryl/ endosulfan/quinalphos at 0.1% gives satisfactory results to control the pest.

5. Stem borer (Sesamia inferens Wlk)

This pest attacking plants that are flowering, prevention can be done by spraying the plants before flowering time (with a recommended insecticide and appropriate dosage). Spraying or dusting with a persistent insecticide like carbaryl/ endosulfan/quinalphos at 0.1% gives satisfactory results to control the pest.6. Army worm (Leucania unifenuta HAW)

This pest attacking plants grown in the evening, soon controlled when the attack has reached above the economic threshold. When once the larva mines into the leaf it will be in comparative safety against chemicals, particularly the dust forms. Hence the most rational approach is to treat the crop with penetrating sprays of contact insecticides timing the same either with the light trap information or with the first appearance of a few mines and larval chambers on the plants. Hence vigilance on the part of the farmer goes a long way in the control of this pest. The following chemicals are recommended for spraying: carbaryl 0.2 per cent; endosulfan 0.04 per cent, dimethoate 0.03 per cent; quinalphos 0.05 per cent; formothion 0.05 per cent; methyl demeton 0.04 per cent, phosphamidon 0.02 per cent, methyl parathion 0.05 per cent and chlorpyrifos 0.05 per cent.

7. Cob worm (Heliothis armigera HSN)

This is a plant destroyer of flies, will attack the fruit or corn, spray only when needed, spray a good time is between 6:00 to 9:00 a.m. the morning or in the evening between 16:00 to 18:00.Since the caterpillars in their early instars are gregarious in their feeding habit, collecting the leaves on which they are feeding along with egg mass collection and destroying them is necessary. Dusting with carbaryl or parathion or endosulfan @ 25-30 kg/ha a week after large scale emergence of moths controls the early instars of the caterpillars. However, control of grown up larvae is difficult due to thick growth of hair on their bodies. Spraying with DDVP, fenitrothion, endosulfan, dimethoate or formothion @ 0.1 per cent may control the grown up larvae to a satisfactory extent.

8.  Corn Downy mildew

The diseases in the form of fungi (mushrooms), symptoms arise attack a wide yellow stripe on the leaves, when washed from the seed then any newly emerging young leaves appear yellow, is transmitted through seed or through wind-borne spores. Way control planting resistant varieties, planting simultaneously, mixing sentrimone.9. Helminthosporium diseases

This is fungal diseases with symptoms of an attack form a yellow oval spot at the center and surrounded by a brown color, attacking the leaves, stem and cob, how to avoid the control of continuous cultivation, spraying with a fungicide as per the instructions and recommendations.

In order to maintain the quantity and quality of production of maize farming, the practices to control pests and diseases is important to be implemented. The steps that need to be taken in plant pest control activities should take account of environmental rules and put the principles of integrated pest and disease control.

Kamis, 22 Juli 2010

Pest on Papaya Fruit

An excellent source of vitamin A and C an aid to digestion, papaya is a popular fruit. Papaya can be easily grown in most of state below 2000 feet. In highest elevations the plant has difficulty bearing mature fruit. Best production will be at 500 feet or lower.

You can use seeds from fresh of papaya. However to do this you must first dry several dozen seed several   in a dish or jar lid for several days. Then plant the seeds in groups of 3 or 4, or scatter all the seed in area about 2 x 10 feet. When planting seeds, cover ¼ inch of soil. Tamp down and water gently. Never allow the soil to dry out round your papaya tress, especially when n they young

Now i will discuss about most dangerous pest that attacking papaya cultivation. Please read the discussion follow as below :

Fruit Flies
It is  important pest of papaya. It is of worldwide distribution. Though all report generally indicate that papaya is the only host(e.g Philips, 1946) mango has also been reported as a host by some workers( Wolfenbarger, 1955). The damage caused by this pest is similar to that of other fruit flies. However apart from mature fruit  the papaya fruit fly can oviposit in the seed cavity on young unripened fruit with early larvae feeding on the seed and lining of the seed cavity and later larvae in the flesh. Fruit fly pest plants are usually pierced with a snout and mouth and then put the fruit through the skin . Period time egg incubation of about 0.1 to 20 days. Papaya fruit fly breeding fast and clustered. The effects of fruit loss stings, if not a bump fall the fruit.
How to overcome them please to create a trap with a plastic bottle in the stimuli used petrogenol, or put in mothballs hanging around papaya, fruit flies function as a repellent making fruit flies do not bring himself to eat.

Plant Lice (aphids).
The expression of the pest depend on climatic condition, plant nutrition status and varietal sensibility. Characteristics  of this pest have a soft body length of 2-3 mm with colour green, yellow or black. Tube has a pair of protrusions on the back of the abdomen, grouse and long legs. Adult fleas, there are winged and not. The destroy  plants by sucking the fluid with a long suction   in the mouth.
This Mite can be eradicated by spraying  Derris powder or flour of sulfur on the leaves.

Mite red / brown / green
Similar forms of pest spider mites,this pest are small less than 1mm. This mite destroy the  papaya plant pests by suck plant on young leaves. Parts attacked become scars discolored  and blackened yellow polka dots and grow shrink unhealthy. .
Solution: If exposed to red mite control with sulfur powder on the exhale the way to the surface of infected papaya leaves. You also can spraying using Akarisida (such kelthane or morestan). (Note : Read the rules of use in packaging and do not wear more than the recommended dose)termite

Rabu, 30 Juni 2010

Pest Control on Pitaya Fruit

Pitaya Fruit or dragon fruit   plants, is the plants that are resistant in fact alive and relatively easy to maintain. But of course there is always a disturbance in the cultivation of pests and diseases that attack that could result in products  suffer losses. Therefore must be considered if you have any pests and diseases that attack the pitaya/dragon fruit plant. The name refers to the pitaya fruit , edible fruit of the plant species:

Hylocereus undatus, a red fruit with white flesh.
Hylocereus polyrhizus, the pink fruit with red flesh.
Selenicereus megalanthus fruit with yellow skin and white flesh.
Hylocereus costaricensis, dragon fruit with a very red color of the fruit.

1. The pests that attack the pitaya fruit plant


Mites (Tetranychus sp.) will attack the bark or branches that damage tissue that serves to assimilation of chlorophyll from green to brown. Please spray the Omite at a dose of 1-2 g / ltr of water that made it 2-3 times a week.

White ticks/ Mealybug

Dragon fruit plant pest infestation that attacked whites (mealybug) on the surface of the trunk or branches will be webbed black and looks dirty. These pests can be controlled by spraying with Kanon with dose of 1-2 cc / ltr of water once a week on a branch that was attacked. Usually two white flea spraying pest is gone. Generally located at the branch that is not exposed to direct sun and pests attacked branches will look dull.

Pest infestation shell (Aspidiotus sp.) Attack plants by sucking the liquid on the trunk or branches causing branch turn yellow. Control can also use the same way as the pest control fleas and ticks white scales.


Pest snails are very detrimental to plant dragon fruit because of damage by gnawing the trunk or branches and branches can lead to rot. Pest is due to a lack of cleanliness maintained gardens.


In general, ants will appear at the dragon fruit plants start flowering. Ants start swarming around the new flower buds and fruit will cause the skin will be speckled brown fruit which of course the price will decrease with such qualities. Control  by spraying with Gusadrin a dose of 2 cc / liter of water.

Disturbance of birds at the dragon fruit is generally infrequent and do not need to worry. Usually attack the fruit that has been cooked on the top.

2. Dragon / Pitaya Fruit Diseases

Diseases that attack the dragon fruit plants do not count many types and causes. However, if the plants attacked should be addressed immediately so as not to spread to other plants. Here is a dragon fruit diseases and their causes and treatment measures:

The base stem rot
This disease usually attacks in the early planting of dragon fruit, dragon fruit crops are rotting from the base of the stem, brown and white fur there. Decay is caused by excessive soil moisture so that it appears that the fungus that causes rot Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. This disease often occurs in the seedling root cuttings that have not grown in the piece.

Treatment plant dragon fruit are attacked by this disease by spraying of Benlate with a dose of 2 g / liter of water or use Ridomil 2 g / liter of water once a month. When symptoms appear yellowish at the base of the stem then immediately spraying is done on the entire trunk and preferably at the base of the stem is attacked.

For the prevention of this disease can be done along with irrigation and spraying fungicides Atonik base of the stem on the plant area that was 30 days at the beginning of the planting.

Rot Bacteria
Symptoms of a dragon fruit plant disease is plant looks wilted, dull, yellowish-white mucus found in the plants decay. The disease is caused by Pseudomonas sp. Treatment by removing diseased, then the planting hole was given Basamid  dose of 0.5 to 1 g  in powder form in the planting hole is then planted new seeds.

Diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporium Schl. Symptoms include branch plants wrinkled, withered, and brown rot. overcome by spraying with Benlate dose water 2g/liter dose 1-2 times a week spraying on the trunk and branches.